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Papua New Guinea, officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea. Its capital Port Moresby is located along its southeastern coast. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.
At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, and 60 years of Australian administration starting in WW I, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975 with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state as an Independent Commonwealth Realm.
The kina is the currency of Papua New Guinea, and may be subdivided into 100 toea. The kina was introduced in 1975, replacing the Australian dollar. The name kina is derived from Kuanua, referring to a pearl shell used for trading in both the Coastal areas of the country.
Papua New Guinea is one of the least explored countries on Earth, with estimations of many undiscovered species of animal in the dense rainforest. European adventurers first visited in the 16th and 17th centuries, however settling did not occur until the Dutch took power of the western half ot the island.
It is a largely rural country with children making up almost half of it.
The kina is the official currency of Papua New Guinea. The ISO 4217 currency code for the kina is PGK.